At its simplest, this essay provides a narrative of migration in Asia since the arrival of Homo sapiens some 70,000 years ago. It made sense to secure those borderlands that had been problems for previous Egyptian rulers for centuries. But in any event, reading Herodotus makes it plain that Darius had no a priori claim to the throne. The imprecise phrasing may imply authority on par with, if not greater than, that of the regional satraps, but it remains an open question. The confrontation occurred at Cunaxa, northwest of Babylon along the Euphrates River.
This was a relief for the armies of Alexander, who had no previous experience of combat against war elephants. After the Aegean front was stabilized in the early 380s see discussion earlier in this chapter , Artaxerxes apparently applied a more sustained focus on Egypt but one that was in the short-term unsuccessful. The Achaemenid occupation, although less successful than that of the later , or , had the effect of acquainting India to the outer world. Unparalleled in its clear and concise discussion, Ancient Persia draws on rich textual, visual, and archaeological sources to convey a cogent overview of the systems, places, and people who made up the Persian Empire. Persian authority was restored within a few years.
Any such conflict would have been construed by the King as an act of insubordination, if not rebellion. In any case, with these areas back firmly under Persian control, the path toward Egypt was open. At this point the testimony of other Greek historians, most notably Ctesias, will be examined. Their archaizing language, coupled with a number of grammatical peculiarities, suggest a conscious hearkening back to the past. Some scholars take it as evidence for co-regency, but the episode remains an enigma. With an eye on Persian expansionism, Amasis had cultivated good relations with many city-states and sanctuaries in the Aegean world.
Still, it seems they did not participate to the final battle, probably because of fatigue. As will be seen in the following pages, that great destiny did not await her. Nevertheless, Darius, with the help of a few men — at least six of whom are specifically mentioned late in the inscription as his prominent supporters §68 - was able to kill this Gaumata and his entourage in Media see Map 4. It is not only useful, but a model of engaging scholarly writing, and a good read. The Ethiopians had sent Cambyses a bow with the message that, when he could draw it, it would be safe to attack them 3.
Cyrus mustered his Greek mercenary forces in Thrace and the Hellespont, areas presumably less likely to attract imperial attention. The Magi, seeking to ensure their security, ostensibly won over Prexaspes, who knew their secret. Courtesy of The State Hermitage Museum, St. Hunger, Astronomical Diaries and Related Texts from Babylonia I: Diaries from 652 B. Darius conversely related that Cambyses had killed Bardiya sometime previously and that a look-alike double, whom Darius called Gaumata, rebelled against Cambyses in March of 522. If that is correct, Arshama was satrap in Egypt by or before 425.
Herodotus also explains that the Indian cavalry under the Achaemenids had an equipment similar that of their foot soldiers: The Indians were armed in like manner as their foot; they rode swift horses and drove chariots drawn by horses and wild asses. How and why Gaumata moved from the place of his initial rebellion in Parsa to a fortress in Media is not explained. When the plot was revealed, Darius, several courtiers, and fifty of his illegitimate half brothers, along with their entire families, were killed. Backed by the army and the noble clans of Persia, grown rich from imperial rule, Darius regained the Empire and extended it into the , a prize worth several times more in tribute than Babylon. All the people saw him. Rawlinson, The Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, 1873, v.
Previously, tribute had been essentially protection money paid to avoid trouble, but Darius treated it as tax. Kuhrt, The Persian Empire: A Corpus of Sources from the Achaemenid Period, 2007, 536 for a succinct summary and references. The territories of , , north-west of the and the are named separately, and were aggregated together for taxation purposes, forming the 7th Achaemenid Province, and paying overall a much lower tribute of 170 talents together about 5151 kg, or 5. This tour-de-force is a must-have for scholars and the interested public alike. Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts.
The first version of the decree is in Hebrew, the second in Aramaic; the Aramaic version is held to be the more reliable. To prevent the satrap building a power base, Darius appointed a separate military commander answerable only to him. Time and again their suspicions were raised, until either further deception or an increase in pay was applied to keep the men on the march. We have no independent check on the veracity of these numbers, which run from the hundreds to the thousands and, in two instances — in battles fought in Media §31 and in Margiana §38 — perhaps the tens of thousands. The Achaemenid Persian Empire, at its greatest territorial extent under Darius I r. Appendix: Darius' war for the succession 5. The Achaemenid army was not uniquely Persian.